12 Factor App

12 Factor App

The 12-Factor App methodology is a set of best practices and principles designed to guide the development and deployment of modern cloud-native applications, including microservices. These principles were formulated by developers at Heroku (a cloud platform) and have been widely adopted by the software industry as a foundation for building scalable, maintainable, and portable applications. The 12 factors provide a clear set of guidelines for building applications that can take full advantage of modern cloud environments and enable efficient development, deployment, and scaling.

Here are the 12 factors of the 12-Factor App methodology:

Codebase: Maintain a single codebase for your application, versioned in a source code control system.

Dependencies: Explicitly declare and isolate dependencies. Use a package manager to manage dependencies.

Configuration: Store configuration settings in the environment, separate from the codebase. Configuration should not be hard-coded.

Backing Services: Treat external services (databases, caches, queues, etc.) as attached resources. Connect to them via URLs or credentials stored in configuration.

Build, Release, Run: Separate the build, release, and run stages of your application. Keep builds and releases repeatable and independent.

Processes: Run your application as one or more stateless and share-nothing processes. This facilitates scalability and fault tolerance.

Port Binding: Export services via a well-defined port and listen for connections on that port.

Concurrency: Scale out your application by adding more processes rather than making individual processes larger.

Disposability: Design your application to be disposable, meaning it can start and stop quickly without affecting the overall system.

Dev/Prod Parity: Keep development, staging, and production environments as similar as possible to reduce the likelihood of bugs and issues.

Logs: Treat logs as event streams and write them to the standard output. Use centralized logging solutions to aggregate and analyze logs.

Admin Processes: Run administrative or management tasks as one-off processes executed in the same environment as the application.

The 12-Factor App methodology emphasizes factors like scalability, maintainability, resilience, and continuous delivery. It is particularly relevant for microservices architecture, as it provides guidelines for building individual services that can be easily integrated and managed within a larger ecosystem.

By following the 12 factors, developers can create applications that are more portable, easier to maintain, and well-suited for deployment on modern cloud platforms and microservices environments.